2 On Agile Development

Agile is a set of guidelines on how to deliver quality software, skipping unproductive or inefficient parts that do not deliver value and focusing on a fast release cycle. The set of principles of Agile focus on lightweight processes, an incremental approach to software delivery, and a strong focus on people and direct communication rather than paperwork. In other words, minimum viable burocracy to deliver minimum viable products in small, achievable and measurable steps, new feature after new feature.

On paper, Agile is an excellent way to get things done. Unfortunately, no plan can face direct conflict with the enemy. I’ve seen plenty of mistakes made by companies pretending or claiming to use Agile, while in fact they use anything but Agile, completely neglecting the advantages of Agile by compromising on its assumptions.

Don’t get me wrong, I am a strong Agile supporter. What I mean is that the whole concept of Agile is often corrupted in its application by managers and executives due to the strong disconnection between what Agile methodologies are and what these people think they are.

The typical scenario is the following: upper management and executives decide to “go agile” because it is sold as a more effective and faster way to deliver results. Lower management and teams realise that in order to implement an agile framework, they would need not only to rewire how the external interactions work, but also their framework against the “accepted company practices” in terms of deadlines, meeting schedules, manufacturing process, stakeholder availability, and Gantt charting labeling from upper management. In addition to that, fundamental tools such as information emitters are not provided, nor are whiteboards or walls to arrange post-its, or closeness of team members. The result is that:

  1. Executives and upper management claim they are doing Agile while in reality the company is not. This percolates to job announcements from HR. New hires think they are joining an Agile system while they are not.
  2. Middle and low management (if uninformed or inexperienced) are led to believe Agile doesn’t work or cannot work, or (if informed) that what the company is doing is not Agile, but a hodgepodge of tragedy.
  3. Team is caught in the mess that originates from this, and starts to either dismiss Agile practices or resign altogether.

The result is that Agile has become a buzzword that is both hated, misunderstood, and pointed as a cargo cult, not because of what Agile actually is, but because of all the people who botched it so badly.

So let’s focus first on what Agile is: a set of principles for development. Agile means to plan for requirements to change, because they will, so stay lightweight and flexible to minimise the cost associated to these changes, and strongly encourage those who dictate the requirements to stay in the loop. That’s it. Nothing more. Do you want to distill it down even further? Here is is: Talk to your customers, talk to your teammates, get things done. Everything else (Scrum, Kanban, etc) is prescriptive methodology that dictates how to apply Agile principles in the real world. Here is when things tend to go wrong.


There are many implementation of development methodologies that follow Agile principles, the most commonly used is probably Scrum. As an implementation, it details specific guidelines on how to organise your development process, as well as the general flow of information and execution within the development team.

For those unfamiliar with Scrum, the idea is to deliver the product incrementally in batches of work called Sprints (lasting from two to four weeks each), feature by feature, via the interaction of three entities:

  1. The Product Owner (PO), a single person acting as a proxy for the customer. The PO is responsible for the direction of the product, the priorities of the features, and the general translation of user requirements in a “language” developers can understand. In other words, the PO is the person that developers need to inquire directly and without hindrance for questions about the features.
  2. The Scrum Team (ST), who estimates the effort required to deliver the product increment satisfying the requests of the PO, as well implement them during the Sprint. The team composition is as variegated as it needs to be: a team dedicated to UI development might have both coders and visual designers.
  3. Finally, the Scrum Master (SM) is a single person organising and monitoring the Scrum process, orchestrating the so-called Scrum “ceremonies” (AKA meetings), checking progress metrics and promoting the removal of impediments.

Every project needs to satisfy the holy trinity of parameters: time, features and resources. Mathematics teaches us that you can not enforce constraints on all three. If you have fixed resources (team, technical skills, development tools) and fixed time (deadline), the the features will need to be left floating. If on the other hand the project has fixed resources and fixed features, the flexibility must be in the delivery time. You can’t cheat this fundamental law of nature. Scrum defines a process that allows the PO to focus on what matters and promotes the release of a working product at the end of every sprint. While not perfect, this product targets the fundamental needs of the customer first, so that feedback and productivity can be achieved as soon as possible.

From what I have seen, Scrum works well in driving delivery and focusing effort, but has its drawbacks. Most of these drawbacks arise from these factors, the first three of which are not strictly Scrum’s fault:

  1. Incorrect application of Scrum as a whole.
  2. Incorrect application of aspects of Scrum.
  3. Scrum not being the right framework for the task.
  4. Scrum not being overly prescriptive on some crucial duties.

Incorrect application of Scrum as a whole

As a first step we are going to analyse a few patterns of incorrect application of Scrum as a whole. This is normally the result of misunderstanding of the fundamentals behind it, or the inability ior unwillingness to transform the company’s established process into the new strategy, while at the same time being pressured into the change from decisions above or from the perceived gains that such transition will bring, without being willing to accept the change in mindset andprocess, as well as the associated costs.


The biggest incorrect use of Scrum I’ve witnessed is what I call Scrumwashing. It is a process that adds a veneer of appearance of doing Scrum, and is generally performed unconsciously by those who do not understand how to practice it. Briefly said, the company and process structure remains exactly the same and people’s roles are renamed: upper managers become Product Owners, middle managers and Team leads become Scrum Masters, but they keep operating in the same way, possibly waterfall.


Related, but different from Scrumwashing is Scrumfall, that is, Scrum + waterfall. Scrumfall does implement Scrum “correctly”, but applies the sprint to individual waterfall phases. There are sprints to write the specs, then sprints to write the design, then sprints to perform the implementation.


Once again related to the previous two, Water-Scrum-Fall starts with a drafting of the specs that are signed off, followed by development performed with a Scrum methodology, followed by the final acceptance by the customer. I’ve witnessed this method in consulting companies, where the deliverable is decided upfront and agreed upon at contract signing. In general, the customer is not willing to provide any guidance or feedback during the development. They just want the contract fulfilled according to the request, even if the request makes no sense. The Team is not consulted before the final sign-off to see if the specs are achievable or make any sense, and the final product is generally the result of interpreting these specs so that, at least on paper, it satisfies the requirements.

Incorrect application of aspects of Scrum

In other cases, Scrum is applied, but with caveats which undermine its core strengths. These are generally the result of inexperienced Scrum Masters and Product Owners, or when Scrum is applied in a context where software production must interact with other aspects of the business having different leading time or feedback and production cycles, typically manufacturing and research.

Use end of sprint as a deadline

In this scenario, Scrum is understood not as an incremental process, but as a fixed time/fixed goal project, typically of one Sprint. The end of Sprint is considered the deadline for the fixed, non-negotiable effort. This leads to a situation where the Team has no control over the features to deliver, and no control over the time. As you can’t cheat nature, something has to give: either the project will be late, or corners will be cut, generally in code quality and testing.

Absentee Product Owner

This is a very common situation. The Product Owner is nowhere to be seen. It can happen that either the PO is unaware of being so, or is just too busy. Unfortunately the job of the Product Owner does not complete with the occasional end of sprint/beginning of sprint period. The Team needs to understand what needs to be done from the User Story. If the request is unclear, or some aspects require discussion during implementation, the Product Owner must be available. Failure to do so will end up delaying the Story, or implementing the Story incorrectly.

Absentee Team

In general, the Product Owner should not disrupt the Team during the Sprint unless directly summoned. The Product Owner is pulled by the Team, never pushed on the Team. However, a situation can occur when the Team requires the Product Owner, but when the Product Owner is available, the Team is not. This is due to a disruption of the Team by other forces, which is a poor practice in itself. The consequence of this is that Team and Product Owner never have the chance to interact directly, and if this can be brought to the extreme when someone from the Team, or even the Scrum Master, becomes a proxy for the Product Owner.

A similar situation can occur not because the Team is actually absent, but because the Product Owner does not have time, and asks for a restricted one-to-one meeting with the proxy to “keep things short”. The proxy now has to propagate the information from the Product Owner to the Team, and has become basically a secondary Product Owner, except has no idea apart from the extremely narrow set of information provided by the real Product Owner.

Team too large

Another mistake I’ve seen in some cases is to have a Scrum Team that is too large. I’ve seen “Scrum Teams” of 20 people, way, way above the optimal of around 6 people. More people means poor integration and a higher chance of unproductive communication. Daily standups become longer, and what one part of the Team does is likely not relevant to the other part. These large teams reflect poor planning in dividing tasks, scope, and competences of the team.

Poor subdivision of competences

This antipattern presents itself in two ways: poor allocation of people, and poor assignment of tasks.

For the first case, poor allocation of people, a Team should have all the competences required to achieve the goal of the Sprint. If a team is given a task, but knows nothing about the technical details on how to achieve that task, they simply can’t progress. The likely scenario will be that they have to interact with an expert outside the team, which may or may not be available. A proper way to conduct the team would be to include the external expert in the Team. Typical examples of this situation is when a Team of developers needs to develop an application frontend, but has no support from a UI designer or the backend expert. These two should be part of the team, either fully or partially.

The second case is corollary to the first, but is related to how individual tasks are assigned during a Sprint. Some Scrum teams operate so that anybody can grab any available tasks and get to work. Reality is however different. Some parts of the code may be better known by one or two elements of the team, either because they already worked on it, or because they have a technical background or seniority that allows them to understand it better. The most effective way to deliver a result is for these people to take those tasks. If another member were to pick it, coding will require more time, reviews will require more back and forth, and overall the effectiveness of the team will be less than what it would have been if the task was taken by the right person. Nevertheless, one also has to consider load balancing and information sharing. Proper assignment of tasks is a collective decision of the team that cannot be performed at random or “when you are free take the next task”.

Team has no clue about the application

Another frequently seen antipattern is when the application has been developed by someone else (likely contractors, or another team), and has been dropped like a steaming pile of garbage on the Team’s table. The Team, who knows nothing about the internals of the application, is now asked to plan the next sprint without knowing anything of the application, and to commit to fixing it for the end of the sprint. The results will be disastrous. Teams and team members are not interchangeable at will, and knowledge of the internals and the required consistency in a piece of software is important information that is never transported from one team to another easily. Some companies try to mitigate this issue with massive amounts of documentation, but while documentation is a fundamental tool, excessive use of it adds more burden to the process, and moves the problem from understanding the code to understanding the documentation against the code.

At the end of the day, brain to brain data transfer is a fundamentally slow process, Agile acknowledges this, and highlights the fact that face to face, direct communication is the mechanism with the highest bandwidth and lowest latency.

The imaginary “Team Lead” role

This scenario is the result of Scrumwashing traditional job descriptions into a Scrum framework. Scrum makes no prescription about the Team composition, except for a statement generally expressed as “a team of motivated, self-organising individuals”. Nevertheless, payroll, resumes and job openings need cool-sounding titles, and in some cases the Team Lead figure emerges. The Team Lead ends up being a catch all for tasks and a blame magnet for failures, must organise the Team operations like a Scrum Master, decide priorities and interact with the customers like a Product Owner, code like a Team member. Oftentimes this figure is the result of an absentee Product Owner who intends his contribute to development as “This is what I need done. It’s all top priority. It need it now. Good bye”.

While the Team Lead figure can be a Scrum Master with enhanced competences that focuses on the technical side of the Team, a Scrum Master cannot also be a Product Owner. The obvious reason is that the Team and the PO are pulling in different directions. The PO knows what’s needed. The Team knows what’s possible. Consensus between these two forces is orchestrated by a negotiation, but this negotiation is harder to achieve when these two roles reside on the same person. The Team ends up seeing the Team lead as “the boss”, rather than the technical guide and organiser, and this influences decision making and willingness to speak openly.

Using the User Story template religiously

This is a minor issue, but I’ve seen it occur in some companies, especially in environments that are inexperienced in Scrum.

A common Scrum User Story template is the “As a … I want … so that …”. The intent is to capture the software feature and its target. A simple application of the above template to a music player could say, For example

*As a* User, *I want* to search songs *So that* I can find the song that interests me.

I have seen this format followed religiously and verbatim. Nothing less, nothing more. This results in poor readability and stifled communication. The point of the rule is to ensure that the critical information given above is present for a story to be valid. The same story, rewritten:

Users need to be able to search songs, for example by typing the name of the song
in an input area, and obtain a list of the matching ones as they type.

While this seems trivial, it is not only a petty lexical and formatting requirement. The User Story must be human readable, and must address the “As a I want So that” need, but also leave space for ease of readability, as well as broader explanatory power. Artificially constraining your story to a rigid template of sterile points is not the goal. The goal is to communicate intent clearly and start a conversation between the User and the Team.

Scrum not being the right framework for the task

In some contexts, Scrum is simply not the right framework, or need to consider the larger context in which it is performed. We’ll explore a few of the circumstances that might undermine a Scrum approach.

IT support

IT engineers normally have to deal with two types of work: on demand “first-come first-serve” issue resolution, and administration of infrastructure. Scrum is clearly not indicated for the first type of work. Imagine your IT person accepting your request and telling your problem will be first prioritized. Then, if deemed of sufficient priority it will be addressed and finalised in two weeks time. For this kind of activity, Kanban is a better strategy exactly because it focuses on a first-come first-serve handling.

Different is however the topic of administration of infrastructure. Depending on the infrastructure, and the strategies implemented by IT, a Scrum approach might be appropriate, for example to develop administrative tools and scripts. The result is that, in some cases, IT might have to work with both a Kanban and a Scrum style in parallel, which might introduce its own challenges for personnel allocation.

Highly regulated industries or consulting

Another environment in which Scrum might not be appropriate (with caveats) is highly regulated industries such as those involved in medical devices, aviation, finance, and pharmaceuticals. These industries have a strong burden of paperwork to address regulatory requirements. A typical scenario is the addition of a new feature to software that can, in case of failure, potentially injure or kill. This modification cannot just be included in the next sprint and performed. Instead, appropriate assessments of the impact of the change must be performed and signed off, the change must be approved and tracked, the code modified, test protocols updated, test reports written and signed off, and a new release must be done, together with the associated documentation.

Scrum can, in a sense, be used within the above scenario if the development is ongoing and the change can be inserted into the production chain, but the documentation burden represents a deliverable in itself, and generally it is a deliverable that requires long time and the involvement of multiple people that may not be part of the team.

Consulting also offers a challenging environment for a Scrum setup. Individual consultants are generally hired by a company to focus on a particular task. If the consultant is not involved in a Scrum team, Scrum makes no sense for a single person, although some concepts of it can be applied to streamline the problem and solve it bit by bit, as well as doing demos along the way.

In the case of consulting companies, generally there’s no negotiation from the team. The team is handed a consulting contract where the requirements have been specified by the customer or agreed as part of a larger project. The Team can, however, internally use Scrum to organise the process, but it is unlikely that the customer will be available for further inquire, making the job of the Product Owner and the Team much harder. This is normally due to the fact that either the customer believes their side of the involvement has been satisfied and just want the result, or because the customer’s internal responsibilities for the project are poorly defined and nobody is really responsible for taking decisions. These projects normally fail to deliver a quality product.

Integration with long round trip time (e.g. manufacturing)

Scrum can be challenging to implement when the company product has both software and hardware components. With hardware, especially during development, the round trip from prototype to final product can take weeks or even months, leaving the software development team without real hardware components to test against. Generally, this is taken care by either developing against previous, older hardware or against a software simulator. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee that the real hardware behavior is exactly the same, leaving developers to scramble at the last minute with non-collaborative hardware they did not expect. This results in multiple sprints that focus exclusively on bugfixing or creating workarounds, and with little chance for refactoring: with the hardware basically production-ready, software must be completed quickly to get the product released.

In these scenarios, it’s important that the management is able to handle a mixed software-hardware company, adapting priorities and organising the production pipeline so that the appropriate workflow is maintained considering the lead times, the amount of available hardware allocated for testing, proper definition of interfaces between software and hardware, and proper knowledge transfer between hardware and software teams.

Scrum not being prescriptive on crucial duties

Scrum as a methodology only focuses on some aspects of the organisation. Unfortunately, some parts are left unspecified, resulting in suboptimal solutions and a patchwork of bad practices even with correctly implemented Scrum. I will present a list of some of the most commonly missing duties and tasks that Scrum unfortunately does not specify, but must be assigned for organic and fluid development pipeline.

Who is responsible for creating the team?

Scrum does not dictate who should be in charge of defining the Team composition. Teams are not cast in stone. They are built around the needs and expertise required to deliver the required features. Different goals may require different expertise within the Team, or have different Teams closely interact during development of a set of features.

A given level of management with technical competence should be in charge of deciding people allocation depending on the higher level priorities and roadmap. Without this coordination, Teams will be ineffective because they will lack the required competences, and are unable to involve the appropriate expertise from other Teams due to lack of available time.

Who does end user support, or bug verification?

The lifetime of a bug generally starts at the user-facing part of application. This bug is filed by the end user and needs to be assessed for reproducibility and correctness. Users are generally not very good at detailing the bugs they find, and in some cases these bugs are actually user errors. Someone needs to be able to evaluate, filter, verify, complement and improve the bug description so that the appropriate development team can understand the issue.

Once this evaluation is done, the bug needs to find its way to the root cause of the problem. It may be the user interface, or it may be a deep backend library returning an incorrect result. Appropriate expertise of the various parts of the application need be present in order to track down the behavior and be able to funnel the bug to the appropriate subsystem.

When the bug finally reaches the correct subsystem, someone needs to be able to fix it, something that need knowledge and competence of that part of the code. If the bug is due to the interaction between two subsystems, expertise about both subsystems must be present.

Scrum is not prescriptive on this fundamental task, resulting in poor handling and allocation of teams, that end up treating bug fixing as a side activity with poor allocation of resources. The reason is that, while features are predictable in required effort and can be scheduled within the sprint, bugs are unpredictable in arrival time, priority, required effort, and complexity.

Who has documentation duties?

One of the principles of Agile is to favor working software over comprehensive documentation. This is however rather naive. Some industries do require documentation as part of their regulatory needs. Even in an unregulated industry, some information must be documented. Typical examples may be technical whitepapers, coding guidelines, reports for management, hardware rigs ip addresses and configuration, onboarding requirements, and much more.

Most companies rely on tools such as Confluence or similar wiki software to store this information. Unfortunately with a large company this wiki tends to become a messy catch all of information with poor structure. Information is hard to find, not kept up to date, duplicated, or forgotten. In other words documentation suffers of the equivalent of bit rot and need for refactoring, exactly like software.

Scrum does not define a role of a Librarian or Archivist. Documentation duties are a shared, vague concern, leading to a tragedy of the commons.

Refactoring and code quality as a consequence, rather than an equal

In all instances of use of Scrum I’ve seen, the code quality has always been abysmal. I am unwilling to assign to Scrum or Agile practices the responibility for such failure, but it is worth stressing out a few important points.

Scrum favors the resolution of User Stories, that is, goals that satisfy the priorities of the Product Owner, and by proxy, the end user. It does not, however, address the need for Stories that keep velocity high. Retrospectives may (and often do) consider procedural and technical shortcomings and how to address them, but another part of the retrospective discussion is generally code quality, lack of documentation, deceiving interfaces, false dependencies, lack of expertise.

The issue is that there are two customers to the codebase:

  • the End User, which produces positive value (money earned) when its needs are satisfied.
  • the development Team, which produces negative value (money spent) when its needs are not satisfied.

The latter is often known as technical debt. As it creeps higher, technical debt reduces the team effectiveness and increases the cost associated to an End User feature. When the positive value delivered by the addition of a feature does not compensate for the cost to incur to deliver it, the code is technically bankrupt.

Scrum, with its emphasis and focus on User stories, targets only the End User, not the developers and their velocity. Code quality improvements are supposed to be rolled into User Stories stories as “refactoring costs”. This never really happens. If you can solve a story by either using a 1 Story Point hack, or perform a 10 story points refactoring, we all know which option will be picked. Additionally, poor solutions may end up being copied around, or other code will depend on them, resulting in layer upon layer of poor decisions and fragile solutions. The Team will end up creating problems and solve them with more problems, often propagating them to the wider company.

Scrum should define not only User Stories, but also Technical Stories. While the first ones target the User, the second ones target the Team. Proper assignment of Technical Stories should be performed during the sprints, according to the scheduled User Stories and with a non-negotiable allocation (say, 20% of the Sprint story points are allocated to Technical Stories). Only then management will accept the costs associated to these stories and developers won’t feel pressured to deliver technically expensive solutions that will eventually bring the Team velocity to a standstill.

Lack of coordination for cross-company software entities

Very often, top level products end up requiring lower level ones. A typical example is a common library shared by different company products. Without the proper coordination, different Teams may end up inventing the same low-level code in two different (and obviously incompatible) ways.

When a low level product is identified (typically at the end of the sprint), it should be extracted promptly as a dependency before it escalates further, and propagated widely across the company. Not performing this task will end up creating incompatibilities, poor use of development resources, and knowledge burden by having the same operation carried out in multiple, slightly different ways.

Closing remarks

Scrum and Agile methodologies promote a shift in perspective in how software is developed, but this shift does not come for free. Implementing Agile needs to be done properly and with care, considering the constraints of the company organization and the technical complexity of the project.

Of all methodologies available for software development, Agile methods have a better chance of delivering a product. “If not Agile, then what?” is a common statement that has its truth. Alternatives such as Waterfall and Iterative are too bulky for the fast paced development world of today. Nevertheless, Agile methodologies are becoming more procedural, more complex, more misunderstood, and often poorly implemented, often leading to developers who are skeptical or hostile to the approach, and with good reasons.

The bottom line is that before Agile methodologies are implemented, people within the company must be fully on board with their processes and duties. Absent product owners, poorly built Teams, and lone-wolf developers will break the methodology.